ื“ื™ ื‘ืขื ืขืคื™ืฅ ืคื•ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ืื™ืŸ ืื•ื ื“ื–ืขืจ ืœืขื‘ืŸ

ืžื•ื›ืึทืžืึทื“ ืฉืึทืจืงืึทื•ื•ื™
ืึทืœื’ืขืžื™ื™ื ืข ืื™ื ืคึฟืึธืจืžืึทืฆื™ืข
ืžื•ื›ืึทืžืึทื“ ืฉืึทืจืงืึทื•ื•ื™ื’ืขื–ื•ื›ื˜ ื“ื•ืจืš: ืžืึธืกื˜ืคืึท ืึทื”ืžืขื“22 ืืงื˜ืื‘ืขืจ 2023ืœืขืฆื˜ืข ื“ืขืจื”ื™ื™ึทื ื˜ื™ืงืŸ: XNUMX ื—ื•ื“ืฉ ืฆื•ืจื™ืง

ื“ื™ ื‘ืขื ืขืคื™ืฅ ืคื•ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ืื™ืŸ ืื•ื ื“ื–ืขืจ ืœืขื‘ืŸ

  • ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ื”ืึธื‘ืŸ ืคื™ืœืข ื‘ืขื ืขืคื™ืฅ ื•ื•ืึธืก ื•ื•ื™ืจืงืŸ ืื•ื ื“ื–ืขืจ ื˜ืขื’ืœืขืš ืœืขื‘ืŸ.
  • ืื•ื™ื‘ ืื™ืจ ื•ื•ื™ืœื˜ ื•ื•ื™ืกืŸ ื“ื™ ื‘ืขื ืขืคื™ืฅ, ื‘ื™ื˜ืข ื–ืขืŸ ื“ื™ ืคืืœื’ืขื ื“ืข ืจืฉื™ืžื”:
  • ืคืึทืกื™ืœืึทื˜ื™ื™ืฉืึทืŸ ืคื•ืŸ ืึทืจื‘ืขื˜ ืื•ืŸ ื‘ื™ืœื“ื•ื ื’: ื“ืขืจ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื™ื– ืึท ื™ืงืขืจื“ื™ืง ื’ืขืฆื™ื™ึทื’ ืื™ืŸ ื“ื™ ื‘ื™ืœื“ื•ื ื’ืงืจื™ื™ื– ืื•ืŸ ืคึผืจืึทืงื˜ื™ืฉ ืคืขืœื“ืขืจ.
    ืขืก ื”ืขืœืคึผืก ืื™ืŸ ืงืึทืžืคึผืœื™ื˜ื™ื ื’ ื˜ืึทืกืงืก ืคืึทืกื˜ืขืจ ืื•ืŸ ืžืขืจ ืึทืงื™ืขืจืึทื˜ืœื™.
    ื“ืึทื ืง ืฆื• ื“ื™ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ, ืžื™ืจ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ืกืึธืœื•ื•ืข ืžืึทื˜ืึทืžืึทื˜ื™ืงืึทืœ ื™ืงื•ื•ื™ื™ื–ืฉืึทื ื– ืื•ืŸ ื ื•ืžืขืจื™ืงืึทืœ ืคึผืจืึธื‘ืœืขืžืก ืœื™ื™ื›ื˜ ืื•ืŸ ืžื™ื˜ ื”ื•ื™ืš ืึทืงื™ืขืจืึทืกื™.Ezoic
  • ืกื˜ืึธืจื™ื ื’ ืื™ื ืคึฟืึธืจืžืึทืฆื™ืข: ื“ืขืจ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื™ื– ืึท ื•ื™ืกื’ืขืฆื™ื™ื›ื ื˜ ื•ื•ืขื’ ืฆื• ืงืจืึธื ืึท ื’ืจื•ื™ืก ืกื•ืžืข ืคื•ืŸ โ€‹โ€‹ืื™ื ืคึฟืึธืจืžืึทืฆื™ืข ืกื™ืงื™ื•ืจืœื™ ืื•ืŸ ืœื™ื™ื›ื˜ ืฆื•ื˜ืจื™ื˜ืœืขืš.
    ืฆื™ ืื™ืจ ืœืขืจื ืขืŸ ืึธื“ืขืจ ืึทืจื‘ืขื˜ ืื™ืŸ ืคื™ื ืึทื ืฆื™ืขืœ, ื’ืขืฉืขืคื˜, ืžืขื“ื™ืฆื™ื ื™ืฉ ืึธื“ืขืจ ืคืึธืจืฉื•ื ื’ ืคืขืœื“ืขืจ, ืึท ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ืœื™ื™ื›ื˜ ืงืจืึธื ืึทืœืข ื•ื•ื™ื›ื˜ื™ืง ื“ืึทื˜ืŸ ืื•ืŸ ืื™ื ืคึฟืึธืจืžืึทืฆื™ืข.
  • ืฉื ืขืœ ืงืึธืžื•ื ื™ืงืึทืฆื™ืข: ื“ื™ ื ื•ืฆืŸ ืคื•ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ื’ื™ื˜ ืื•ื ื“ื– ืขืคืขืงื˜ื™ื•ื• ืื•ืŸ ืฉื ืขืœ ืงืึธืžื•ื ื™ืงืึทืฆื™ืข ืžื™ื˜ืœืขืŸ.
    ืžื™ืจ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ื™ื‘ืขืจื’ืขื‘ืŸ ืžื™ื˜ ืคืจืขื ื“ื– ืื•ืŸ ืžืฉืคึผื—ื” ื“ื•ืจืš E- ื‘ืจื™ื•ื• ืึธื“ืขืจ ื’ืขื–ืขืœืฉืึทืคื˜ืœืขืš ืžื™ื“ื™ืึท.
    ืขืก ืื•ื™ืš ืžืื›ื˜ ืขืก ื’ืจื™ื ื’ืขืจ ืคึฟืึทืจ ืื•ื ื“ื– ืฆื• ื™ื‘ืขืจื’ืขื‘ืŸ ืžื™ื˜ ืงืึธืœืขื’ืขืก ืื™ืŸ ืึทืจื‘ืขื˜ ื“ื•ืจืš ืจืขื’ืข ืึทืจื˜ื™ืงืœืขืŸ ืื•ืŸ ื•ื•ื™ื“ืขื ืžื™ื˜ื™ื ื’ื–.
  • ืฉืืคืŸ ืื•ืŸ ืจืขื“ืึทื’ื™ืจืŸ ื“ืึธืงื•ืžืขื ื˜ืŸ ืื•ืŸ ื‘ื™ืœื“ืขืจ: ื“ืึทื ืง ืฆื• ื“ื™ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ, ืžื™ืจ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ืœื™ื™ื›ื˜ ืฉืึทืคึฟืŸ ืื•ืŸ ืจืขื“ืึทื’ื™ืจืŸ ื“ืึธืงื•ืžืขื ื˜ืŸ ืื•ืŸ ื‘ื™ืœื“ืขืจ.
    ื ื™ื˜ ืงื™ื™ืŸ ืขื ื™ืŸ ืฆื™ ืื™ืจ ื•ื•ื™ืœืŸ ืฆื• ืฉืจื™ื™ึทื‘ืŸ ืึทืŸ ืึทืจื˜ื™ืงืœ, ืžืึทื›ืŸ ืคึผืจืขื–ืึทื ื˜ื™ื™ืฉืึทื ื– ืึธื“ืขืจ ืจืขื“ืึทื’ื™ืจืŸ ื“ื™ื’ื™ื˜ืึทืœ ืคืึธื˜ืึธืก, ืื™ืจ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ืคืึทืจืœืึธื–ื  ืื•ื™ืฃ ืึท ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืฆื• ื•ื™ืกืคื™ืจืŸ ื“ื™ ื˜ืึทืกืงืก.Ezoic
  • ืคืืจืฉื˜ืื ื“ ืคื•ืŸ ื“ืึทื˜ืŸ: ื“ืึทื ืง ืฆื• ื“ื™ ืžืึทื›ื˜ ืคื•ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก, ืžื™ืจ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ื‘ืขืกืขืจ ืคึฟืึทืจืฉื˜ื™ื™ืŸ ืื•ืŸ ืึทื ืึทืœื™ื™ื– ื“ืึทื˜ืŸ.
    ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ืงืขื ืขืŸ ืงืœื™ื™ึทื‘ืŸ ืื•ืŸ ืึทื ืึทืœื™ื™ื– ืจื™ื–ื™ืง ื“ืึทื˜ืŸ ื’ืขืฉื•ื•ื™ื ื“ ืื•ืŸ ื™ืคื™ืฉืึทื ื˜ืœื™, ื•ื•ืึธืก ื”ืขืœืคึผืก ืื•ื ื“ื– ืžืึทื›ืŸ ื‘ืขืกืขืจ ื“ื™ืกื™ื–ืฉืึทื ื– ืื•ืŸ ืคึฟืึทืจืฉื˜ื™ื™ืŸ ืคืึทืจืฉื™ื“ืขื ืข ื˜ืจืขื ื“ืก.
  • ื’ืขื•ื•ืืงืกืŸ ืคึผืจืึธื•ื“ืึทืงื˜ื™ื•ื•ื™ื˜ื™: ื“ืขืจ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ื™ื ืงืจื™ืกื™ื– ืคึผืจืึธื•ื“ืึทืงื˜ื™ื•ื•ืึทื˜ื™ ืื™ืŸ ืคื™ืœืข ื’ืขื‘ื™ื˜ืŸ.
    ื“ืึทื ืง ืฆื• ืขืก, ืžื™ืจ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ืจื™ื™ื•ื– ื“ื™ ืึทืจื‘ืขื˜ ืื•ืŸ ืจืขื“ื•ืฆื™ืจืŸ ื“ื™ ืฆื™ื™ื˜ ืื•ืŸ ืžื™ ืคืืจื‘ืจืื›ื˜ ืื•ื™ืฃ ื“ื™ ืงืึทืžืคึผืœื™ื˜ื™ื ื’ ื˜ืึทืกืงืก.
    ืขืก ืงืขื ืขืŸ ืื•ื™ืš ืคึฟืึทืจื‘ืขืกืขืจืŸ ื“ื™ ืึธืจื’ืึทื ื™ื–ืึทืฆื™ืข ืคื•ืŸ โ€‹โ€‹ืจืขืกื•ืจืกืŸ ืื•ืŸ ื•ื™ืกืคื™ืจืŸ ืึทืคึผืขืจื™ื™ืฉืึทื ื– ืžืขืจ ื™ืคื™ืฉืึทื ื˜ืœื™.
  • ืžืึทื›ืŸ ืžืขืจ ื’ืขืœื˜: ื ื™ืฆืŸ ืึท ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ื”ืขืœืคึฟืŸ ืคืึทืจื’ืจืขืกืขืจืŸ ื”ืึทื›ื ืึธืกืข ืื•ืŸ ืคึผืจืึทืคื™ืฅ.
    ื“ืึทื ืง ืฆื• ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก, ืงืึธืžืคึผืึทื ื™ืขืก ืงืขื ืขืŸ ื™ืงืกืคึผืึทื ื“ ื–ื™ื™ืขืจ ืงืจื™ื™ึทื– ืคื•ืŸ ืงืึทืกื˜ืึทืžืขืจื– ืื•ืŸ ื“ืขืจื’ืจื™ื™ื›ืŸ ื’ืจืขืกืขืจืข ืคืืจืงื•ื™ืคื•ื ื’ ืื•ืŸ ื”ืขื›ืขืจ ืคึผืจืึทืคื™ืฅ.
    ืžืขื ื˜ืฉืŸ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ืื•ื™ืš ื“ื•ืจื›ืคื™ืจืŸ ื–ื™ื™ืขืจ ื’ืขืฉืขืคื˜ ืึธื ืœื™ื™ืŸ ืื•ืŸ ืคืึทืจื’ืจืขืกืขืจืŸ ื–ื™ื™ืขืจ ื’ื™ื›ืขืจ ืคื•ืŸ ื”ืฆืœื—ื” ืื•ืŸ ื ื•ืฅ.Ezoic
  • ืื•ื™ื‘ ืื™ืจ ื ื•ืฆืŸ ืึท ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื™ืŸ ื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื˜ืขื’ืœืขืš ืœืขื‘ืŸ, ืื™ืจ ื–ื™ื›ืขืจ ื ื•ืฅ ืคื•ืŸ ืคื™ืœืข ืคื•ืŸ โ€‹โ€‹ื“ื™ ืื•ื™ื‘ืŸ ื“ืขืจืžืื ื˜ ื‘ืขื ืขืคื™ืฅ.
  • ื›ืึทืจื ืึทืก ื“ื™ ืžืึทื›ื˜ ืคื•ืŸ ื“ื™ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืฆื• ืคืึทืจืคึผืึธืฉืขื˜ืขืจืŸ ื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืึทืจื‘ืขื˜, ืœืขืจื ืขืŸ ื ื™ื™ึท ื˜ื™ื ื’ื– ืื•ืŸ ื“ืขืจื’ืจื™ื™ื›ืŸ ื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื’ืึธื•ืœื– ืื™ืŸ ืœืขื‘ืŸ.
ื“ื™ ื‘ืขื ืขืคื™ืฅ ืคื•ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ืื™ืŸ ืื•ื ื“ื–ืขืจ ืœืขื‘ืŸ

ื•ื•ืึธืก ืกืขืจื•ื•ื™ืกืขืก ื’ื™ื˜ ื“ืขืจ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ?

  • ื“ืขืจ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื™ื– ื’ืขื•ื•ืืจืŸ ืึท ื™ืงืขืจื“ื™ืง ื’ืขืฆื™ื™ึทื’ ืื™ืŸ ื“ื™ ืœืขื‘ืŸ ืคื•ืŸ ืคื™ืœืข ืžืขื ื˜ืฉืŸ, ื•ื•ื™ื™ึทืœ ืขืก ืื™ื– ื’ืขื ื™ืฆื˜ ืื™ืŸ ืคื™ืœืข ืคืขืœื“ืขืจ, ื“ืึทื ืง ืฆื• ื“ื™ ืคืึทืจืฉื™ื™ื“ื ืงื™ื™ึทื˜ ืคื•ืŸ ืกืขืจื•ื•ื™ืกืขืก.Ezoic
  • ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ืฆื•ืฉื˜ืขืœืŸ ืึท ืคืึทืจืฉื™ื™ื“ื ืงื™ื™ึทื˜ ืคื•ืŸ ื‘ืึทื“ื™ื ื•ื ื’ืก ืฆื• ื ื™ืฆืขืจืก, ืึทืจื™ื™ึทื ื’ืขืจืขื›ื ื˜:
  • ืื™ื ื˜ืขืจื ืขืฅ: ื“ืขืจ ืงืืžืคื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ื•ื•ืขืจื˜ ืคืืจืจืขื›ื ื˜ ืืœืก ื ื˜ื•ื™ืขืจ ืฆื• ื“ืขืจ ื•ื•ืขืœื˜ ืคื•ืŸ ืื™ื ื˜ืขืจื ืขื˜, ื•ื•ื™ื™ืœ ืขืจ ืœืื–ื˜ ื‘ืื ื•ืฆืขืจ ืฆื•ืงื•ืžืขืŸ ืฆื• ื“ื™ ืื™ื ื˜ืขืจื ืขื˜ ืฆื• ื–ื•ื›ืŸ ืื™ื ืคืืจืžืืฆื™ืข ืื•ืŸ ื“ื•ืจื›ื–ื•ื›ืŸ ืคืืจืฉื™ื“ืขื ืข ื•ื•ืขื‘ืกื™ื™ื˜ืก ืื•ืŸ ื“ื™ื’ื™ื˜ืึทืœืข ืคืœืื˜ืคืืจืžืขืŸ.
  • ื•ื•ื™ื™ื›ื•ื•ืืจื’: ื“ืขืจ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืึทืœืึทื•ื– ืžืขื ื˜ืฉืŸ ืฆื• ื™ื ืกื˜ืึทืœื™ืจืŸ ืื•ืŸ ื ื•ืฆืŸ ืคืึทืจืฉื™ื“ืŸ ื•ื•ื™ื™ื›ื•ื•ืืจื’ ืฆื• ื˜ืจืขืคืŸ ื–ื™ื™ืขืจ ืคืขืจื–ืขื ืœืขื›ืข ืื•ืŸ ืคืึทื›ืžืึทืŸ ื‘ืื“ืขืจืคืขื ื™ืฉืŸ.
    ื“ื™ ื•ื•ื™ื™ื›ื•ื•ืืจื’ ืึทืจื™ื™ึทื ื ืขืžืขืŸ ื•ื•ืึธืจื˜ ืคึผืจืึทืกืขืกืขืจื–, ืคึผืœืึทืŸ ืื•ืŸ ืึทืงืึทื•ื ื˜ื™ื ื’ ื•ื•ื™ื™ื›ื•ื•ืืจื’, E- ื‘ืจื™ื•ื• ื‘ืึทื“ื™ื ื•ื ื’ืก ืื•ืŸ ืžืขืจ.Ezoic
  • ืจืขื’ืข ืžืขืกื™ื“ื–ืฉื™ื ื’: ื™ื•ื–ืขืจื– ืงืขื ืขืŸ ื ื•ืฆืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ืฆื• ื™ื‘ืขืจื’ืขื‘ืŸ ืžื™ื˜ ื™ืขื“ืขืจ ืื ื“ืขืจืข ืœื™ื™ื›ื˜ ื“ื•ืจืš ืคืึทืจืฉื™ื“ืŸ ืจืขื’ืข ืžืขืกื™ื“ื–ืฉื™ื ื’ ืึทืคึผืœืึทืงื™ื™ืฉืึทื ื– ืื•ืŸ ืžื’ื™ืœื”, ืึทื–ืึท ื•ื•ื™ E- ื‘ืจื™ื•ื•, ืงื•ืœ ืฉืžื•ืขืกืŸ ืื•ืŸ ื•ื•ื™ื“ืขื.
  • ื“ืึธืงื•ืžืขื ื˜ืŸ ืื•ืŸ ื˜ืขืงืขืก: ื“ืขืจ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืึทืœืึทื•ื– ื ื™ืฆืขืจืก ืฆื• ืฉืึทืคึฟืŸ, ืžืึธื“ื™ืคื™ืฆื™ืจืŸ ืื•ืŸ ืงืจืึธื ื•ื•ื™ื›ื˜ื™ืง ื“ืึธืงื•ืžืขื ื˜ืŸ ืื•ืŸ ื˜ืขืงืขืก, ืึทื–ืึท ื•ื•ื™ ื˜ืขืงืกื˜, ืกืคึผืจืขื“ืฉื™ืฅ ืื•ืŸ ืคึผืจืขื–ืึทื ื˜ื™ื™ืฉืึทื ื–.
    ื“ื™ ื˜ืขืงืขืก ืงืขื ืขืŸ ืื•ื™ืš ื–ื™ื™ืŸ ืึทืงืกืขืกื˜ ืคึฟื•ืŸ ืขืจื’ืขืฅ ื“ืึทื ืง ืฆื• ื•ื•ืึธืœืงืŸ ืกื˜ืึธืจื™ื“ื–ืฉ ื‘ืึทื“ื™ื ื•ื ื’ืก.
  • ืคืืจื•ื•ื™ื™ืœื•ื ื’ ืื•ืŸ ืฉืคื™ืœืŸ: ื“ืขืจ ืงืืžืคื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื™ื– ื ื’ืจื•ื™ืกืขืจ ืคืืจื•ื•ื™ื™ืœื•ื ื’ืกืžื™ื˜ืœ, ื•ื•ื™ื™ืœ ื‘ืื ื•ืฆืขืจ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ื–ืขื”ืŸ ืงื™ื ืึธ ืื•ืŸ ืกืขืจื™ืขืก, ื”ืขืจืŸ ืžื•ื–ื™ืง ืื•ืŸ ืฉืคื™ืœืŸ ืขืœืขืงื˜ืจืื ื™ืฉืข ืฉืคื™ืœืŸ.Ezoic

ื•ื•ื™ ื˜ืขื›ื ืึธืœืึธื’ื™ืข ื“ืขื•ื•ืขืœืึธืคึผืก, ื“ื™ ืกืขืจื•ื•ื™ืกืขืก ื•ื•ืึธืก ืึท ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ืฆื•ืฉื˜ืขืœืŸ ื–ืขื ืขืŸ ืงืขืกื™ื™ื“ืขืจ ื™ื ืงืจื™ืกื™ื ื’.
ื“ืขืจื™ื‘ืขืจ, ืขืก ืื™ื– ื™ืงืขืจื“ื™ืง ืึทื– ืžืขื ื˜ืฉืŸ ืœืขืจื ืขืŸ ืฆื• ื ื•ืฆืŸ ื“ืขื ื˜ืขื›ื ืึธืœืึธื’ื™ืข ืื™ืŸ ืึท ืขืคืขืงื˜ื™ื•ื• ืฉื˜ื™ื™ื’ืขืจ ืฆื• ื’ืึธืจ ื ื•ืฅ ืคื•ืŸ ื“ื™ ืกืขืจื•ื•ื™ืกืขืก ืื•ืŸ ื‘ืขื ืขืคื™ืฅ ืขืก ื’ื™ื˜.
ื“ืขืจื™ื‘ืขืจ, ื“ืขืจ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื™ื– ืึท ืฉื˜ืึทืจืง ืื•ืŸ ื•ื•ืขืจืกืึทื˜ืึทืœ ื’ืขืฆื™ื™ึทื’ ื•ื•ืึธืก ืงืึทื ื˜ืจื™ื‘ื™ื•ืฅ ืฆื• ืคึฟืึทืจื‘ืขืกืขืจืŸ ืคื™ืœืข ืึทืกืคึผืขืงืฅ ืคื•ืŸ ื™ื•ื–ืขืจื– 'ืœืขื‘ืŸ ืื•ืŸ ื˜ืจืขืคืŸ ื–ื™ื™ืขืจ ื“ื™ื™ื•ื•ืขืจืก ื‘ืื“ืขืจืคืขื ื™ืฉืŸ.

ื•ื•ืึธืก ื–ืขื ืขืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืจื™ืกืงืก?

  • ื“ืขืจ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื™ื– ื’ืขื•ื•ืืจืŸ ืึท ื™ื ื˜ืึทื’ืจืึทืœ ื˜ื™ื™ืœ ืคื•ืŸ ืื•ื ื“ื–ืขืจ ื˜ืขื’ืœืขืš ืœืขื‘ืŸ ืื•ืŸ ืื™ื– ื’ืขื•ื•ืืจืŸ ืึท ืคึฟืขื ืฆื˜ืขืจ ืฆื• ื“ื™ ื“ื™ื’ื™ื˜ืึทืœ ื•ื•ืขืœื˜.
  • ื•ื•ื™ืจื•ืกืขืก ืื•ืŸ ืกืคึผื™ื•ื•ืึทืจืข: ื•ื•ื™ืจื•ืกืขืก ืื•ืŸ ืกืคึผื™ื•ื•ืึทืจืข ื–ืขื ืขืŸ ืฆื•ื•ื™ืฉืŸ ื“ื™ ืžืขืจืกื˜ ื’ืขืคืขืจืœืขืš ืจื™ืกืงืก ืึทื– ื ื™ืฆืขืจืก ืงืขื ืขืŸ ืคึผื ื™ื ืื•ื™ืฃ ื“ื™ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ.
    ื“ืขืจ ืžืึทืœื•ื•ืึทืจืข ื™ื™ืžื– ืฆื• ืคืึทืจืฉืึทืคืŸ ืฉืขื“ื™ืงืŸ ืฆื• ื“ืขื•ื•ื™ืกืขืก, ื’ืึทื ื•ื•ืขื ืขืŸ ืคืขืจื–ืขื ืœืขื›ืข ื“ืึทื˜ืŸ ืึธื“ืขืจ ืฉืคึผื™ืึธืŸ ืื•ื™ืฃ ื“ื™ ืึทืงื˜ื™ื•ื•ื™ื˜ืขื˜ืŸ ืคื•ืŸ ื ื™ืฆืขืจืก ืึธืŸ ื–ื™ื™ืขืจ ื•ื•ื™ืกืŸ.Ezoic
  • ื›ืึทืงื™ื ื’ ืื ืคืืœืŸ: ื›ืึทืงืขืจื– ืึทืจื‘ืขื˜ ืฆื• ื™ื ืคื™ืœื˜ืจื™ืจืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ืื•ืŸ ื ืขื˜ื•ื•ืึธืจืงืก ืžื™ื˜ ื“ื™ ืฆื™ืœ ืฆื• ืึทืงืกืขืก ืฉืคึผื™ืจืขื•ื•ื“ื™ืง ืื™ื ืคึฟืึธืจืžืึทืฆื™ืข ื•ื•ืึธืก ืงืขื ืขืŸ ืฉืึทื˜ืŸ ื ื™ืฆืขืจืก.
    ื›ืึทืงื™ื ื’ ืื ืคืืœืŸ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ืึธื ืžืึทื›ืŸ ืคืขืจื–ืขื ืœืขื›ืข ืื™ื ืคึฟืึธืจืžืึทืฆื™ืข ืœื™ืงืึทื“ื–ืฉ, ืื™ื“ืขื ื˜ื™ื˜ืขื˜ ื’ื ื™ื™ื•ื•ืข, ืกื™ืกื˜ืขื ื“ื™ืกืจืึทืคึผืฉืึทืŸ ืึธื“ืขืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ื“ื™ืกืจืึทืคึผืฉืึทืŸ ืคื•ืŸ ื•ื•ื™ื›ื˜ื™ืง ื‘ืึทื“ื™ื ื•ื ื’ืก.
  • ืคึผืจื™ื•ื•ืึทื˜ืงื™ื™ื˜ ืกืคึผื™ื™ื™ื ื’: ื ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ืึธื ืžืึทื›ืŸ ืึท ืคึผืจื™ื•ื•ืึทื˜ืงื™ื™ื˜ ืจื™ื–ื™ืงื™ืจืŸ ืื•ื™ื‘ ืขืก ืื™ื– ื’ืขื ื™ืฆื˜ ื™ืœื™ื’ืึทืœื™ ืึธื“ืขืจ ืึธืŸ ื“ืขืจ ื‘ืึทื ื™ืฆืขืจ ืก ื•ื•ื™ืกืŸ.
    ืคื™ืœืข ืึทืคึผืœืึทืงื™ื™ืฉืึทื ื– ืื•ืŸ ื•ื•ืขื‘ืกื™ื˜ืขืก ืงืœื™ื™ึทื‘ืŸ ืคืขืจื–ืขื ืœืขื›ืข ืื™ื ืคึฟืึธืจืžืึทืฆื™ืข ื•ื•ืขื’ืŸ ื™ื•ื–ืขืจื– ืื•ืŸ ื ื•ืฆืŸ ืขืก ืฆื• ืฆื™ืœ ื’ืึทื ืฆืข ืึธื“ืขืจ ืคืึธืจืฉื•ื ื’ ื“ื™ ืคืขืจื–ืขื ืœืขื›ืข ืึทืงื˜ื™ื•ื•ื™ื˜ืขื˜ืŸ ืคื•ืŸ ื“ืขืจ ื‘ืึทื ื™ืฆืขืจ.
  • ืžื™ืกื™ื•ื– ืื•ืŸ ืึทื“ื™ืงืฉืึทืŸ: ื™ื‘ืขืจื™ืง ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ื ื•ืฆืŸ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ืคื™ืจืŸ ืฆื• ื ืขื‘ืขืš ืงืึทื ืกืึทื ื˜ืจื™ื™ืฉืึทืŸ ืื•ืŸ ืึทื“ื™ืงืฉืึทืŸ ืฆื• ืื™ื ืคึฟืึธืจืžืึทืฆื™ืข ื˜ืขื›ื ืึธืœืึธื’ื™ืข, ื•ื•ืึธืก ื ืขื’ืึทื˜ื™ื•ื•ืœื™ ืึทืคืขืงืฅ ื“ื™ ื’ื™ื™ึทืกื˜ื™ืง ืื•ืŸ ื’ืขื–ืขืœืฉืึทืคื˜ืœืขืš ื’ืขื–ื•ื ื˜ ืคื•ืŸ ืžืขื ื˜ืฉืŸ.Ezoic
  • ืื™ื“ืขื ื˜ื™ื˜ืขื˜ ื’ื ื™ื™ื•ื•ืข: ืื™ื“ืขื ื˜ื™ื˜ืขื˜ ื’ื ื™ื™ื•ื•ืข ืื™ื– ืึท ืคึผืจืึธืกื˜ ืคึผืจืึธื‘ืœืขื ืื™ืŸ ื“ื™ ื“ื™ื’ื™ื˜ืึทืœ ืขืœื˜ืขืจ.
    ื ื“ืขื•ื•ืึทืกื˜ื™ื™ื˜ื™ื ื’ ื‘ืจื™ื˜ืฉ ืคื•ืŸ ืคืขืจื–ืขื ืœืขื›ืข ืึทืงืึทื•ื ืฅ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ืคื™ืจืŸ ืฆื• ื“ื™ ื’ื ื™ื™ื•ื•ืข ืคื•ืŸ โ€‹โ€‹ืคื™ื ืึทื ืฆื™ืขืœ ืื™ื ืคึฟืึธืจืžืึทืฆื™ืข ืื•ืŸ ืคืขืจื–ืขื ืœืขื›ืข ืื™ื“ืขื ื˜ื™ื˜ืขื˜, ืึทื–ื•ื™ ืฉื˜ืขืœืŸ ืžืขื ื˜ืฉืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืจื™ื–ื™ืงื™ืจืŸ.

ืฆื• ืึทื“ืจืขืก ื“ื™ ืจื™ืกืงืก, ืขืก ืื™ื– ื ื™ื™ื˜ื™ืง ืคึฟืึทืจ ื ื™ืฆืขืจืก ืฆื• ื”ืึธื‘ืŸ ื’ืขื ื•ื’ ื•ื•ื™ืกื™ืงื™ื™ึทื˜ ืคื•ืŸ ื“ื™ ื•ื•ื™ื›ื˜ื™ืงื™ื™ื˜ ืคื•ืŸ ื’ืขื”ืขืจื™ืง ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืฉื•ืฅ.
ืื™ืจ ื–ืึธืœ ื™ื ืกื˜ืึทืœื™ืจืŸ ืคืึทืจืœืึธื–ืœืขืš ืึทื ื˜ื™-ื•ื•ื™ืจื•ืก ืื•ืŸ ืึทื ื˜ื™-ืกืคึผื™ื•ื•ืึทืจืข ื•ื•ื™ื™ื›ื•ื•ืืจื’, ื“ืขืจื”ื™ื™ึทื ื˜ื™ืงืŸ ื“ื™ ืกื™ืกื˜ืขื ืงืขืกื™ื™ื“ืขืจ, ื™ื ืกื˜ืจื•ืžืขื ื˜ ืฉื˜ืึทืจืง ืคึผืึทืจืึธืœ ืคึผืึทืœืึทืกื™ื– ืื•ืŸ ื ื™ืฉื˜ ื˜ื™ื™ืœืŸ ืคืขืจื–ืขื ืœืขื›ืข ืื™ื ืคึฟืึธืจืžืึทืฆื™ืข ืžื™ื˜ ืึทื ื˜ืจืึทืกื˜ื™ื“ ืคึผืึทืจื˜ื™ืขืก.

ื™ื•ื–ืขืจื– ืžื•ื–ืŸ ื–ื™ื™ืŸ ืึทื•ื•ืขืจ ืื•ืŸ ืึธืคึผื’ืขื”ื™ื˜ ื•ื•ืขืŸ ื–ื™ื™ ื ื•ืฆืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ืื•ืŸ ื‘ืจืึทื•ื–ื™ื ื’ ื“ื™ ืื™ื ื˜ืขืจื ืขื˜, ืึทื–ื•ื™ ื–ื™ื™ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ื”ืึธื‘ืŸ ืึท ื–ื™ื›ืขืจ ืื•ืŸ ื‘ืึทืงื•ื•ืขื ืฆื™ื™ื˜ ืื™ืŸ ื“ื™ ื‘ืœื™ืขื ื“ื™ืง ื“ื™ื’ื™ื˜ืึทืœ ื•ื•ืขืœื˜.

Ezoic
ื•ื•ืึธืก ื–ืขื ืขืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืจื™ืกืงืก?

ื•ื•ืึธืก ื–ืขื ืขืŸ ื“ื™ ืึทื“ื•ื•ืึทื ื˜ื™ื“ื–ืฉื™ื– ืคื•ืŸ ื ื™ืฆืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ืื•ืŸ ืื™ื ื˜ืขืจื ืขื˜ ืื™ืŸ ืœืขืจื ืขืŸ ืฉืคึผืจืึทื›ืŸ?

  • ื“ื™ ื ื•ืฆืŸ ืคื•ืŸ ื˜ืขื›ื ืึธืœืึธื’ื™ืข ืื™ืŸ ืฉืคึผืจืึทืš ืœืขืจื ืขืŸ ืื™ื– ื’ืขื”ืืœื˜ืŸ ื™ื ื“ื™ืกืคึผืขื ืกืึทื‘ืึทืœ ืื™ืŸ ืื•ื ื“ื–ืขืจ ืงืจืึทื ื˜ ืชืงื•ืคื”, ื•ื•ื™ื™ึทืœ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ืื•ืŸ ื“ื™ ืื™ื ื˜ืขืจื ืขื˜ ื–ืขื ืขืŸ ื’ืขื•ื•ืืจืŸ ืขืคืขืงื˜ื™ื•ื• ืžื™ื˜ืœ ืฆื• ืคึฟืึทืจื‘ืขืกืขืจืŸ ื“ื™ ืฉืคึผืจืึทืš ืœืขืจื ืขืŸ ืคึผืจืึธืฆืขืก.

ืฆื•ื•ื™ืฉืŸ ื“ื™ ื”ื•ื™ืคึผื˜ ืึทื“ื•ื•ืึทื ื™ื“ื–ืฉื™ื– ืคื•ืŸ ื ื™ืฆืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ืื•ืŸ ื“ื™ ืื™ื ื˜ืขืจื ืขื˜ ืื™ืŸ ืฉืคึผืจืึทืš ืœืขืจื ืขืŸ ื–ืขื ืขืŸ:

  • ืึทื•ื•ืึทื™ืœืึทื‘ื™ืœื™ื˜ื™ ืคื•ืŸ ื‘ื™ืœื“ื•ื ื’ืงืจื™ื™ื– ืจืขืกื•ืจืกืŸ: ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ืื•ืŸ ื“ืขืจ ืื™ื ื˜ืขืจื ืขืฅ ืœืึธื–ืŸ ืœืขืจืขืจืก ืฆื• ืึทืงืกืขืก ืึท ื‘ืจื™ื™ื˜ ืื•ืŸ ื“ื™ื™ื•ื•ืขืจืก ืงื™ื™ื˜ ืคื•ืŸ ื‘ื™ืœื“ื•ื ื’ืงืจื™ื™ื– ืจืขืกื•ืจืกืŸ ืึธื ืœื™ื™ืŸ.
    ืกื˜ื•ื“ืขื ื˜ืŸ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ื ื•ืฆืŸ ื“ื™ ืจืขืกื•ืจืกืŸ ืฆื• ืคึฟืึทืจื‘ืขืกืขืจืŸ ื–ื™ื™ืขืจ ืœื™ื™ืขื ืขืŸ, ืฉืจื™ื™ื‘ืŸ, ืฆื•ื’ืขื”ืขืจื˜ ืื•ืŸ ืจืขื“ืŸ ืึทื‘ื™ืœืึทื˜ื™ื– ืื•ืŸ ื™ืงืกืคึผืึทื ื“ ื–ื™ื™ืขืจ ื•ื•ืึธืงืึทื‘ื•ืœืึทืจื™.
    ืขืก ืื•ื™ืš ื’ื™ื˜ ื–ื™ื™ ืึทืงืกืขืก ืฆื• ืขืœืขืงื˜ืจืึธื ื™ืฉ ื“ื™ืงืฉืึทื ืขืจื™ื–, ื“ื™ืงืฉืึทื ืขืจื™ื– ืื•ืŸ ื™ื ื˜ืขืจืึทืงื˜ื™ื•ื• ื•ื•ืขื‘ืกื™ื˜ืขืก ื•ื•ืึธืก ื”ืขืœืคึฟืŸ ื–ื™ื™ ื‘ืขืกืขืจ ืคึฟืึทืจืฉื˜ื™ื™ืŸ ื’ืจืึทืžืึทื˜ื™ืง ื›ึผืœืœื™ื ืื•ืŸ ืฉืคึผืจืึทืš ืคืึธืจืžื™ื•ืœื™ื™ืฉืึทืŸ.Ezoic
  • ืงืึธืžื•ื ื™ืงืึทืฆื™ืข ืื™ืŸ ื“ืขืจ ืฆื™ืœ ืฉืคึผืจืึทืš: ื“ืขืจ ืื™ื ื˜ืขืจื ืขืฅ ืื™ื– ืึทืŸ ืขืคืขืงื˜ื™ื•ื• ื•ื•ืขื’ ืฆื• ื™ื‘ืขืจื’ืขื‘ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื“ืขืจ ืฆื™ืœ ืฉืคึผืจืึทืš.
    ืกื˜ื•ื“ืขื ื˜ืŸ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ืึธื ื˜ื™ื™ืœ ื ืขืžืขืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืึธื ืœื™ื™ืŸ ื’ืจื•ืคึผืขืก ืื•ืŸ ื“ื™ืกืงื•ืกื™ืข ื’ืจื•ืคึผืขืก ืื•ืŸ ื™ื ื˜ืขืจืึทืงื˜ ืžื™ื˜ ื’ืขื‘ื•ื™ืจืŸ ืกืคึผื™ืงืขืจื– ืคื•ืŸ ื“ืขืจ ืฉืคึผืจืึทืš.
    ื–ื™ื™ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ืื•ื™ืš ืžืึทื›ืŸ ื•ื•ื™ื“ืขื ืงืึทืœืœืก ืื•ืŸ ืงื•ืœ ื˜ืฉืึทืฅ ื“ื•ืจืš ืจืขื’ืข ืžืขืกื™ื“ื–ืฉื™ื ื’ ืึทืคึผืคึผืก, ื’ืขื‘ืŸ ื–ื™ื™ ืึท ื™ื™ื ืฆื™ืง ื’ืขืœืขื’ื ื”ื™ื™ื˜ ืฆื• ืฆื•ืœื™ื™ื’ืŸ ื•ื•ืึธืก ื–ื™ื™ ื”ืึธื‘ืŸ ื’ืขืœืขืจื ื˜ ืื™ืŸ ืึท ืคืึทืงื˜ื™ืฉ-ื•ื•ืขืœื˜ ืกื•ื•ื™ื•ื•ืข ืื•ืŸ ืคึฟืึทืจื‘ืขืกืขืจืŸ ื–ื™ื™ืขืจ ืงืึธืžื•ื ื™ืงืึทืฆื™ืข ืกืงื™ืœื–.
  • ื™ื ื˜ืขืจืึทืงื˜ื™ื•ื•ืข ืœืขืจื ืขืŸ: ื“ืขืจ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื•ืŸ ื“ื™ ืื™ื ื˜ืขืจื ืขื˜ ืฆื•ืฉื˜ืขืœืŸ ื™ื ื˜ืขืจืึทืงื˜ื™ื•ื• ื‘ื™ืœื“ื•ื ื’ืงืจื™ื™ื– ืžื›ืฉื™ืจื™ื ื•ื•ืึธืก ืžืึทื›ืŸ ื“ื™ ืœืขืจื ืขืŸ ื“ืขืจืคืึทืจื•ื ื’ ืžืขืจ ืฉืคึผืึทืก ืื•ืŸ ื˜ืฉื™ืงืึทื•ื•ืข.
    ื“ืึทื ืง ืฆื• ื‘ื™ืœื“ื•ื ื’ืงืจื™ื™ื– ืฉืคึผื™ืœืขืจื™ื™ึท, ื•ื•ื™ื“ื™ืืก ืื•ืŸ ื™ื ื˜ืขืจืึทืงื˜ื™ื•ื• ืžืึทื˜ืขืจื™ืึทืœืก, ืกื˜ื•ื“ืขื ื˜ืŸ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ื•ื™ืกืคืึธืจืฉืŸ ื“ื™ ืฉืคึผืจืึทืš ืžืขืจ ื™ืคืขืงื˜ื™ื•ื•ืœื™ ืื•ืŸ ื–ื™ื™ืŸ ืžืึธื•ื˜ืึทื•ื•ื™ื™ื˜ืึทื“ ืฆื• ืึธื ื˜ื™ื™ืœ ื ืขืžืขืŸ ืื•ืŸ ื™ื ื˜ืขืจืึทืงื˜.
    ืื•ื™ืš, ืึทื•ื•ืึทื ืกื™ืจื˜ืข ื˜ืขืงื ืึทืœืึทื“ื–ืฉื™ื– ืึทื–ืึท ื•ื•ื™ ืงื™ื ืกื˜ืœืขืš ืกื™ื™ื›ืœ ืื•ืŸ ืžืึทืฉื™ืŸ ืœืขืจื ืขืŸ ื‘ื™ื™ืฉื˜ื™ื™ืขืจืŸ ืฆื• ืฆื•ืฉื˜ืขืœืŸ ืœืขืจื ืขืŸ ื™ืงืกืคึผื™ืจื™ืึทื ืกื™ื– ื˜ื™ื™ืœืขืจื“ ืฆื• ื“ื™ ื‘ืื“ืขืจืคืขื ื™ืฉืŸ ืคื•ืŸ ื™ืขื“ืขืจ ืชึผืœืžื™ื“.
  • ื“ื•ืจืš ื ื™ืฆืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ืื•ืŸ ื“ื™ ืื™ื ื˜ืขืจื ืขื˜ ืื™ืŸ ืฉืคึผืจืึทืš ืœืขืจื ืขืŸ, ืกื˜ื•ื“ืขื ื˜ืŸ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ื•ื•ืขืจืŸ ืžืขืจ ืคึผืึทืกื™ืง ืื•ืŸ ื–ื™ื›ืขืจ ื•ื•ืขื’ืŸ ื–ื™ื™ืขืจ ืฉืคึผืจืึทืš ืึทื‘ื™ืœืึทื˜ื™ื–.Ezoic
  • ื“ื™ ืžื›ืฉื™ืจื™ื ืœืึธื–ืŸ ื–ื™ื™ ืฆื• ืœืขืจื ืขืŸ ืขื ื™ื˜ื™ื™ื ืื•ืŸ ืขืจื’ืขืฅ, ื•ื•ืึธืก ืงืึทื ื˜ืจื™ื‘ื™ื•ืฅ ืฆื• ืคึฟืึทืจื‘ืขืกืขืจืŸ ื–ื™ื™ืขืจ ื‘ื™ื™ื’ื™ืงื™ื™ื˜ ืื•ืŸ ื–ื™ืš-ืœืขืจื ืขืŸ ืึทืคึผืขืจื˜ื•ื ืึทื˜ื™ื–.
  • ืื™ืŸ ื“ืขืจืฆื•, ื“ื™ ื ื•ืฆืŸ ืคื•ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ืื•ืŸ ื“ื™ ืื™ื ื˜ืขืจื ืขื˜ ื’ื™ื˜ ืึท ื’ืขืœืขื’ื ื”ื™ื™ื˜ ืฆื• ืœืขืจื ืขืŸ ื“ื•ืจืš ื™ื ื˜ืขืจืึทืงืฉืึทืŸ ืžื™ื˜ ืงืœืึทืกืžื™ื™ืฅ ืื•ืŸ ื’ืขื‘ื•ื™ืจืŸ ืกืคึผื™ืงืขืจื– ืคื•ืŸ ืึทืœืข ืื™ื‘ืขืจ ื“ื™ ื•ื•ืขืœื˜, ื•ื•ืึธืก ื‘ืจื™ื™ื“ื– ื“ื™ ื›ืขืจื™ื™ื–ืึทื ื– ืคื•ืŸ ืกื˜ื•ื“ืขื ื˜ืŸ ืื•ืŸ ืคืึทืจื‘ืขืกืขืจืŸ ื–ื™ื™ืขืจ ืงื•ืœื˜ื•ืจ ืคืืจืฉื˜ืื ื“.
  • ืื™ืŸ ืงื•ืจืฅ, ื“ื™ ื ื•ืฆืŸ ืคื•ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ืื•ืŸ ื“ืขืจ ืื™ื ื˜ืขืจื ืขืฅ ืื™ืŸ ืฉืคึผืจืึทืš ืœืขืจื ืขืŸ ืื™ื– ืึท ื•ื•ื™ื›ื˜ื™ืง ืฉืจื™ื˜ ืฆื• ืคึฟืึทืจื‘ืขืกืขืจืŸ ื“ืขื ืœืขืจื ืขืŸ ืคึผืจืึธืฆืขืก ืื•ืŸ ืึทื ื˜ื•ื•ื™ืงืœืขืŸ ื“ื™ ืกืงื™ืœื– ืคื•ืŸ ืกื˜ื•ื“ืขื ื˜ืŸ.Ezoic

ื•ื•ืึธืก ื–ืขื ืขืŸ ื“ื™ ื’ืขื‘ื™ื˜ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื•ื•ืึธืก ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ื–ืขื ืขืŸ ื’ืขื ื™ืฆื˜?

  • ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ื–ืขื ืขืŸ ืื™ื™ื ืขืจ ืคื•ืŸ ื“ื™ ืžืขืจืกื˜ ื˜ืขืงื ืึทืœืึทื“ื–ืฉื™ืงืึทืœ ื™ื ืึธื•ื•ื•ื™ื™ืฉืึทื ื– ื•ื•ืึธืก ื”ืึธื‘ืŸ ื’ืขื‘ื™ื˜ืŸ ืื•ื ื“ื–ืขืจ ื•ื•ืขื’ืŸ ืคื•ืŸ ืœืขื‘ืŸ ืื•ืŸ ืงืึทื ืกื˜ืึทื˜ื•ื˜ืึทื“ ืึท ืจื™ื–ื™ืง ืึทื ื˜ื•ื•ื™ืงืœื•ื ื’ ืื™ืŸ ืคื™ืœืข ืคืขืœื“ืขืจ.
  • ื˜ืขื›ื ืึธืœืึธื’ื™ืข ืื•ืŸ ื’ื™ืš ืึทื ื˜ื•ื•ื™ืงืœื•ื ื’ ืื™ืŸ ื“ื™ ืคืขืœื“ ืคื•ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ืžืึทื›ืŸ ื–ื™ื™ ื™ื ื“ื™ืกืคึผืขื ืกืึทื‘ืึทืœ ืื™ืŸ ื“ื™ ืคืขืœื“ ืคื•ืŸ ื’ืขืฉืขืคื˜ ืื•ืŸ ืคืึทืจื ืขืžื•ื ื’ ืคืึทืจื•ื•ืึทืœื˜ื•ื ื’.
  • ื“ืขืจ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื™ื– ื’ืขื ื™ืฆื˜ ืคึฟืึทืจ ืึทืงืึทื•ื ื˜ื™ื ื’, ื™ื ื•ื•ืึทื ื˜ืึธืจื™ ืคืึทืจื•ื•ืึทืœื˜ื•ื ื’, ืคืืจืงื•ื™ืคื•ื ื’ ืื•ืŸ ื“ืึทื˜ืŸ ืึธืจื’ืึทื ื™ื–ืึทืฆื™ืข, ื•ื•ืึธืก ื™ืžืคึผืจื•ื•ื•ื– ืึทืจื‘ืขื˜ ืขืคืขืงื˜ื™ื•ื•ืงื™ื™ึทื˜ ืื•ืŸ ืกืึทื•ื•ืขืก ืฆื™ื™ื˜ ืื•ืŸ ืžื™.
  • ืื•ื™ืš, ื“ื™ ื ื•ืฆืŸ ืคื•ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ืื™ืŸ ื“ื™ ืžืขื“ื™ืฆื™ื ื™ืฉ ืคืขืœื“ ืื™ื– ืึท ืจื™ื–ื™ืง ื”ืขื›ืขืจื•ื ื’.
  • ืื™ืŸ ื“ืขืจืฆื•, ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ื–ืขื ืขืŸ ื’ืขื ื™ืฆื˜ ืื™ืŸ ื•ื•ื™ืกื ืฉืืคื˜ืœืขื›ืข ืคืึธืจืฉื•ื ื’ ืื•ืŸ ืึทื ืึทืœื™ืกื™ืก ืคื•ืŸ ืžืขื“ื™ืฆื™ื ื™ืฉ ื“ืึทื˜ืŸ, ื•ื•ืึธืก ืงืึทื ื˜ืจื™ื‘ื™ื•ืฅ ืฆื• ื•ื•ื™ืกื ืฉืืคื˜ืœืขื›ืข ืื•ืŸ ืžืขื“ื™ืฆื™ื ื™ืฉ ืคึผืจืึธื’ืจืขืก ืื™ืŸ ืึทืœื’ืขืžื™ื™ืŸ.

ืื™ืŸ ื™ื ื–ืฉืขื ื™ืขืจื™ืข ืื•ืŸ ืคึผืœืึทืŸ, ื“ื™ ื ื•ืฆืŸ ืคื•ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ืื™ื– ืงืจื™ื˜ื™ืฉ.
ื“ื™ ื˜ืขื›ื ืึธืœืึธื’ื™ืข ืคื•ืŸ โ€‹โ€‹XNUMX ื“ ืžืึธื“ืขืœื™ื ื’ ืื•ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ-ืึทื™ื“ืขื“ ืกื™ืžื™ืึทืœื™ื™ืฉืึทืŸ ื’ื™ื˜ ืขื ื“ื–ืฉืึทื ื™ืจื– ืื•ืŸ ื“ื™ื–ื™ื™ื ืขืจื– ื“ื™ ืคื™ื™ื™ืงื™ื™ื˜ ืฆื• ืฉืึทืคึฟืŸ, ืึทื ืึทืœื™ื™ื– ืื•ืŸ ืขืงืกืคึผืขืจื™ืžืขื ื˜ ืžื™ื˜ ืคื™ืœืข ืคึผืจืึทื“ื–ืฉืขืงืก ืื™ื™ื“ืขืจ ื–ื™ื™ ืึทืงืฉืœื™ ื™ืžืคึผืœืึทืžืขื ื™ื ื’.
ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ื–ืขื ืขืŸ ืื•ื™ืš ื’ืขื ื™ืฆื˜ ืื™ืŸ ื’ืจืึทืคื™ืง ืคึผืœืึทืŸ ืื•ืŸ ืึทื ืึทืžื™ื™ืฉืึทืŸ ืฆื• ืคึผืจืึธื“ื•ืฆื™ืจืŸ ืกื˜ืึทื ื™ื ื’, ืจืขืึทืœื™ืกื˜ื™ืฉ ื•ื•ืขืจืง ืคื•ืŸ ืงื•ื ืกื˜.

ื ื™ื˜ ื‘ืœื•ื™ื– ืื™ืŸ ื“ื™ ื•ื•ื™ืกื ืฉืืคื˜ืœืขื›ืข ืื•ืŸ ื˜ืขืงื ืึทืœืึทื“ื–ืฉื™ืงืึทืœ ืคืขืœื“ ื–ืขื ืขืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ื’ืขื ื™ืฆื˜, ืึธื‘ืขืจ ืื•ื™ืš ืื™ืŸ ื“ื™ ืงื™ื ืกื˜ ืื•ืŸ ืคืึทืจื•ื•ื™ื™ึทืœื•ื ื’ ืคืขืœื“.
ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ื–ืขื ืขืŸ ื’ืขื ื™ืฆื˜ ืฆื• ืคึผืจืึธื“ื•ืฆื™ืจืŸ ืคื™ืœืžืก, ืžื•ื–ื™ืง, ืขืœืขืงื˜ืจืึธื ื™ืฉ ืฉืคึผื™ืœืขืจื™ื™ึท ืื•ืŸ ืึทื ืึทืžื™ื™ืฉืึทืŸ ืคึผืœืึทืŸ, ื•ื•ืึธืก ื‘ื™ื™ืฉื˜ื™ื™ืขืจืŸ ืฆื• ืฉืึทืคึฟืŸ ืึทืžื™ื™ื–ื™ื ื’ ืื•ืŸ ื™ื ืึทื•ื•ื™ื™ื˜ื™ื•ื• ืคืึทืจื•ื•ื™ื™ึทืœื•ื ื’ ื™ืงืกืคึผื™ืจื™ืึทื ืกื™ื– ืคึฟืึทืจ ืึทื“ื™ืึทื ืกืึทื–.

ื“ื™ ืจืฉื™ืžื” ื’ื™ื™ื˜ ื•ื•ื™ื™ื˜ืขืจ, ื•ื•ื™ื™ึทืœ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ื–ืขื ืขืŸ ื’ืขื ื™ืฆื˜ ืื™ืŸ ืคื™ืœืข ืคืขืœื“ืขืจ ืึทื–ืึท ื•ื•ื™ ืงืึธืžื•ื ื™ืงืึทืฆื™ืข, ืคึผืœืึทืฅ ื•ื•ื™ืกื ืฉืึทืคึฟื˜, ื‘ื™ืœื“ื•ื ื’, ื–ื™ื›ืขืจื”ื™ื™ื˜, ืขืœืขืงื˜ืจืึธื ื™ืฉ ืคึฟืึทืจืงื•ื™ืฃ, ืคืึธืจืฉื•ื ื’ ืื•ืŸ ืึทื ื˜ื•ื•ื™ืงืœื•ื ื’, ืื•ืŸ ืคื™ืœืข ืื ื“ืขืจืข.

  • ืื™ืŸ ืงื•ืจืฅ, ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ืฉืคึผื™ืœืŸ ืึท ื™ืงืขืจื“ื™ืง ืจืึธืœืข ืื™ืŸ ืคืึทืจืฉื™ื“ืŸ ื˜ืขืงื ืึทืœืึทื“ื–ืฉื™ืงืึทืœ, ืฉืขืคืขืจื™ืฉ ืื•ืŸ ื•ื•ื™ืกื ืฉืืคื˜ืœืขื›ืข ืคืขืœื“ืขืจ.

ื•ื•ืึธืก ืื™ื– ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื™ื›ื•ืช ืคื•ืŸ ื“ื™ ืึทืจืึทื‘ื™ืฉ ืฉืคึผืจืึทืš ืฆื• ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ื•ื•ื™ืกื ืฉืึทืคึฟื˜?

  • ื“ื™ ืึทืจืึทื‘ื™ืฉ ืฉืคึผืจืึทืš ืื™ื– ืื™ืŸ ื“ื™ ืคืึธืจืคืจืึทื ื˜ ืคื•ืŸ ืฉืคึผืจืึทื›ืŸ ื•ื•ืึธืก ื‘ืึทืงื•ืžืขืŸ ื™ื ืงืจื™ืกื™ื ื’ ื•ืคืžืขืจืงื–ืึทืžืงื™ื™ื˜ ืื™ืŸ ื“ื™ ืคืขืœื“ ืคื•ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ื•ื•ื™ืกื ืฉืึทืคึฟื˜.
  • ื“ื™ ืึทืจืึทื‘ื™ืฉ ืฉืคึผืจืึทืš ืื™ื– ื’ืขื”ืืœื˜ืŸ ืึท ื™ื™ื ืฆื™ืง ืึทืจื•ื™ืกืจื•ืคืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื“ื™ ืคืขืœื“ ืคื•ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ื•ื•ื™ืกื ืฉืึทืคึฟื˜ ืจืขื›ื˜ ืฆื• ื“ืขืจ ืงืึทืžืคึผืœืขืงืกื™ื˜ื™ ืคื•ืŸ ื“ื™ ืฉืคึผืจืึทืš ืกื˜ืจื•ืงื˜ื•ืจ ืื•ืŸ ื–ื™ื™ึทืŸ ื—ื™ืœื•ืง ืคื•ืŸ ืื ื“ืขืจืข ืฉืคึผืจืึทื›ืŸ ื’ืขื ื™ืฆื˜ ืื™ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืคึผืจืึธื’ืจืึทืžืžื™ื ื’.

ืึธื‘ืขืจ, ืขืก ื–ืขื ืขืŸ ืงืึทื ื˜ื™ื ื™ื•ื™ื ื’ ื“ื™ื•ื•ืขืœืึทืคึผืžืึทื ืฅ ืื™ืŸ ื“ื™ ื ื•ืฆืŸ ืคื•ืŸ ืึทืจืึทื‘ื™ืฉ ืื™ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ื•ื•ื™ืกื ืฉืึทืคึฟื˜.
ืขืคึฟืขื ืขืŸ ืžืงื•ืจ ื•ื•ื™ื™ื›ื•ื•ืืจื’ ืคึผืึทืงืึทื“ื–ืฉืึทื– ืื•ืŸ ื˜ืขืงืกื˜ ืึทื ืึทืœื™ืกื™ืก ืžื›ืฉื™ืจื™ื ื–ืขื ืขืŸ ื“ืขื•ื•ืขืœืึธืคึผืขื“ ื•ื•ืึธืก ืฉื˜ื™ืฆืŸ ื“ื™ ืึทืจืึทื‘ื™ืฉ ืฉืคึผืจืึทืš ืื•ืŸ ืคืึทืกื™ืœืึทื˜ื™ื™ื˜ ื“ื™ ืคึผืจืึธื’ืจืึทืžืžื™ื ื’ ืคึผืจืึธืฆืขืก ืื•ืŸ ื•ื•ื™ ืงืœื•ื’ ื“ืขื•ื•ื™ืกืขืก ื™ื ื˜ืขืจืึทืงื˜ ืžื™ื˜ ืขืก.

  • ื“ื™ ื‘ืขื ืขืคื™ืฅ ืคื•ืŸ ื ื™ืฆืŸ ืึทืจืึทื‘ื™ืฉ ืื™ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ื•ื•ื™ืกื ืฉืึทืคึฟื˜ ื“ืขืจืฉื™ื™ึทื ืขืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืึท ืคืึทืจืฉื™ื™ื“ื ืงื™ื™ึทื˜ ืคื•ืŸ ืคืขืœื“ืขืจ, ืึทื–ืึท ื•ื•ื™ ืึทื ื˜ื•ื•ื™ืงืœื•ื ื’ ืคื•ืŸ ืงื™ื ืกื˜ืœืขืš ืกื™ื™ื›ืœ, ืžืึทืฉื™ืŸ ืœืขืจื ืขืŸ ืื•ืŸ ื“ืึทื˜ืŸ ืึทื ืึทืœื™ืกื™ืก.

ืžื™ืจ ืžื•ื–ืŸ ื ื™ืฉื˜ ืื™ื’ื ืึธืจื™ืจืŸ ื“ื™ ืงื•ืœื˜ื•ืจ ืึทืกืคึผืขืงื˜ ืคื•ืŸ ื™ื ื˜ืึทื’ืจื™ื™ื˜ื™ื ื’ ื“ื™ ืึทืจืึทื‘ื™ืฉ ืฉืคึผืจืึทืš ืื™ืŸ ื“ื™ ืคืขืœื“ ืคื•ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ื•ื•ื™ืกื ืฉืึทืคึฟื˜.
ื“ื™ ื”ืฉืชื“ืœื•ืช ืงืขืŸ ื‘ื™ื™ืฉื˜ื™ื™ืขืจืŸ ืฆื• ืคึฟืึทืจื‘ืขืกืขืจืŸ ื“ื™ ืึทืจืึทื‘ื™ืฉ ืงื•ืœื˜ื•ืจ ื“ื•ืจืš ืฆื•ืฉื˜ืขืœืŸ ืึธื ืœื™ื™ืŸ ืื™ื ื”ืึทืœื˜ ืื™ืŸ ืึทืจืึทื‘ื™ืฉ ืื•ืŸ ืฆื•ืฉื˜ืขืœืŸ ืึท ื’ืขืœืขื’ื ื”ื™ื™ื˜ ืคึฟืึทืจ ืžืขื ื˜ืฉืŸ ืฆื• ืึทืงืกืขืก ื•ื•ื™ืกืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื–ื™ื™ืขืจ ืžื•ื˜ืขืจ ืœืฉื•ืŸ.

  • ืื™ืŸ ืึทืœื’ืขืžื™ื™ืŸ, ืขืก ืงืขื ืขืŸ ื–ื™ื™ืŸ ื’ืขื–ืื’ื˜ ืึทื– ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื™ื›ื•ืช ืฆื•ื•ื™ืฉืŸ ื“ื™ ืึทืจืึทื‘ื™ืฉ ืฉืคึผืจืึทืš ืื•ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ื•ื•ื™ืกื ืฉืึทืคึฟื˜ ื ืขืžื˜ ืึท ืžืึทืœื˜ื™ืคืึทืกืึทื˜ื™ื“ ืคืึธืจืขื ืื•ืŸ ืงืขืกื™ื™ื“ืขืจื“ื™ืง ืึทื ื˜ื•ื•ื™ืงืœื•ื ื’.
  • ื“ื™ ื ื•ืฆืŸ ืคื•ืŸ ืึทืจืึทื‘ื™ืฉ ืื™ืŸ ื“ืขื ืคืขืœื“ ืงืึทื ื˜ืจื™ื‘ื™ื•ืฅ ืฆื• ื“ืขืจ ืึทื ื˜ื•ื•ื™ืงืœื•ื ื’ ืคื•ืŸ ืึทืจืึทื‘ื™ืฉ ื•ื•ื™ื™ื›ื•ื•ืืจื’ ืื•ืŸ ื˜ืขื›ื ืึธืœืึธื’ื™ืข ืื•ืŸ ื™ืงืกืคึผืึทื ื“ื– ื“ื™ ืคืึทืจื ืขื ืคื•ืŸ ื–ื™ื™ึทืŸ ืึทืคึผืœืึทืงื™ื™ืฉืึทื ื– ืื•ืŸ ื‘ืขื ืขืคื™ืฅ.

ืคื•ืŸ ื•ื•ืึธืก ื˜ืึธืŸ ืžื™ืจ ื‘ืึทืฉื™ืฆืŸ ื“ื™ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ?

  • ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ื˜ืขื›ื ืึธืœืึธื’ื™ืข ืฉืคึผื™ืœื˜ ืึท ื•ื•ื™ื˜ืึทืœ ืจืึธืœืข ืื™ืŸ ืื•ื ื“ื–ืขืจ ื˜ืขื’ืœืขืš ืœืขื‘ืŸ, ื•ื•ื™ื™ึทืœ ืžื™ืจ ืึธืคืขื ื’ืขืŸ ืื•ื™ืฃ ืขืก ืฆื• ื“ื•ืจื›ืคื™ืจืŸ ืคื™ืœืข ื•ื•ื™ื›ื˜ื™ืง ื˜ืึทืกืงืก.
  • ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ืœื™ื™ื“ืŸ ืคื•ืŸ ืคื™ืœืข ื˜ืจืขืฅ ื•ื•ืึธืก ืฆื™ืœืŸ ืฆื• ื’ืึทื ื•ื•ืขื ืขืŸ ืคืขืจื–ืขื ืœืขื›ืข ืื™ื ืคึฟืึธืจืžืึทืฆื™ืข ืึธื“ืขืจ ืคืึทืจืฉืึทืคืŸ ืกื™ืกื˜ืขื ื“ื™ืกืจืึทืคึผืฉืึทืŸ, ืึทื–ื•ื™ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ื–ื™ื›ืขืจื”ื™ื™ื˜ ืžื•ื–ืŸ ื–ื™ื™ืŸ ืื•ื ื“ื–ืขืจ ืฉืคึผื™ืฅ ื‘ื™ืœื›ืขืจืงื™ื™ึทื˜.
  • ืขืจืฉื˜ืขืจ, ืžื™ืจ ื–ืึธืœ ื™ื ืกื˜ืึทืœื™ืจืŸ ืึทื ื˜ื™-ื•ื•ื™ืจื•ืก ืื•ืŸ ืึทื ื˜ื™-ืžืึทืœื•ื•ืึทืจืข ื•ื•ื™ื™ื›ื•ื•ืืจื’ ืื•ื™ืฃ ืื•ื ื“ื–ืขืจ ื“ืขื•ื•ื™ืกืขืก.
  • ืฆื•ื•ื™ื™ื˜ื ืก, ืžื™ืจ ืžื•ื–ืŸ ื ื•ืฆืŸ ืฉื˜ืึทืจืง ืคึผืึทืกื•ื•ืขืจื“ื– ืฆื• ืึทืงืกืขืก ื“ื™ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื•ืŸ ืื•ื ื“ื–ืขืจ ืคืขืจื–ืขื ืœืขื›ืข ืึทืงืึทื•ื ืฅ.
  • ื“ืจื™ื˜, ื“ื™ ืึธืคึผืขืจื™ื™ื˜ื™ื ื’ ืกื™ืกื˜ืขื ืื•ืŸ ื•ื•ื™ื™ื›ื•ื•ืืจื’ ื–ืึธืœ ืื•ื™ืš ื–ื™ื™ืŸ ื“ืขืจื”ื™ื™ึทื ื˜ื™ืงื˜ ืงืขืกื™ื™ื“ืขืจ.

ืื™ืจ ื–ืึธืœ ืื•ื™ืš ื ื™ืฉื˜ ืขืคืขื ืขืŸ ืึทื˜ืึทื˜ืฉื˜ ื˜ืขืงืขืก ืึธื“ืขืจ ืœื™ื ืงืก ืคื•ืŸ ืึทื ื˜ืจืึทืกื˜ื™ื“ ืคึผืึทืจื˜ื™ืขืก, ื•ื•ื™ื™ึทืœ ื–ื™ื™ ืงืขืŸ ืึทื ื˜ื”ืึทืœื˜ืŸ ืžืึทืœื•ื•ืึทืจืข ื•ื•ืึธืก ืงืขืŸ ืคืึทืจืฉืึทืคืŸ ืฉืึทื˜ืŸ ืฆื• ื“ื™ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ.

  • ืื™ืŸ ืึทื“ื™ืฉืึทืŸ, ืžื™ืจ ื–ืึธืœ ื™ื ืงืจื™ืคึผื˜ ืื•ื ื“ื–ืขืจ ื•ื•ื™ื›ื˜ื™ืง ื˜ืขืงืขืก ืื•ืŸ ื‘ืึทืงืึทืคึผ ื–ื™ื™ ืื•ื™ืฃ ื–ื™ื›ืขืจ ืคื•ื ื“ืจื•ื™ืกื ื“ื™ืง ืกื˜ืึธืจื™ื“ื–ืฉ ืžื™ื“ื™ืึท.

ืžื™ืจ ืžื•ื–ืŸ ืื•ื™ืš ื ื™ืฉื˜ ืคืึทืจื’ืขืกืŸ ื“ื™ ื ื•ื™ื˜ื™ืง ืฆื• ืฆื•ืฉื˜ืขืœืŸ ืึท ื‘ืึทืงืึทืคึผ ืงืึธืคึผื™ืข ืคื•ืŸ โ€‹โ€‹ื•ื•ื™ื›ื˜ื™ืง ื˜ืขืงืขืก ืื•ื™ืฃ ืคืึทืจืœืึธื–ืœืขืš ื•ื•ืึธืœืงืŸ ืกืขืจื•ื•ืขืจืก.
ื“ืึธืก ื’ื™ื˜ ืื•ื ื“ื– ื“ื™ ืคื™ื™ื™ืงื™ื™ื˜ ืฆื• ืฆื•ืจื™ืงืงืจื™ื’ืŸ ื“ืึทื˜ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื“ื™ ื’ืขืฉืขืขื ื™ืฉ ืคื•ืŸ ืึท ืขืจืฉื˜ื™ืง ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ื“ื•ืจื›ืคืึทืœ.

  • ืขืก ืื™ื– ื’ืขื•ื•ืืจืŸ ื ื™ื™ื˜ื™ืง ืฆื• ื‘ืึทืฉื™ืฆืŸ ืื•ื ื“ื–ืขืจ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ืึทืคึผืจืึธื•ืคึผืจื™ื™ื˜ืœื™ ืฆื• ื”ืึทืœื˜ืŸ ื“ื™ ืคึผืจื™ื•ื•ืึทื˜ืงื™ื™ื˜ ืคื•ืŸ ืคืขืจื–ืขื ืœืขื›ืข ืื™ื ืคึฟืึธืจืžืึทืฆื™ืข ืื•ืŸ ืขื ืฉื•ืจ ื“ื™ ื’ืขื”ืขืจื™ืง ืคืึทื ื’ืงืฉืึทื ื™ื ื’.

ื•ื•ืขืจ ืื™ื– ื’ืขื•ื•ืขืŸ ื“ืขืจ ืขืจืฉื˜ืขืจ ืฆื• ื ื•ืฆืŸ ืึท ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ?

  • ืงืืžืคื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื“ืขืจ ืงืืžืคื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืคื•ื‘ืœื™ืฆื™ืกื˜ืŸ ื–ืขื ืขืŸ ื‘ืืฉืืคืŸ ื’ืขื•ื•ืืจืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื“ื™ ืื ื”ื™ื™ื‘ ืคื•ืŸ XNUMXื˜ืŸ ื™ืืจื”ื•ื ื“ืขืจื˜ ืกืคื™ืจื”, ืื•ืŸ ื“ืขืจ ืงืืžืคื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื“ืขืจ ืงืืžืคื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื™ื– ื’ืขื•ื•ืขืŸ ื ืจื™ื–ื™ื’ืข ืžืืฉื™ืŸ ื•ื•ืืก ื”ืื˜ ืคืจืืกืขืกื˜ ืื•ืŸ ืกื˜ืึธืจื“ ื“ืึทื˜ืŸ ืฉื ืขืœ ืื•ืŸ ืขืคืคืขืงื˜.

ืึธื‘ืขืจ, ื“ื™ ืงืฉื™ื ืคื•ืŸ ื•ื•ืขืจ ืื™ื– ื’ืขื•ื•ืขืŸ ื“ืขืจ ืขืจืฉื˜ืขืจ ืฆื• ื ื•ืฆืŸ ืึท ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ื ื™ื˜ ื–ื™ื™ืŸ ื’ืขืขื ื˜ืคืขืจื˜ ื’ืึธืจ ืงืœืึธืจ, ื•ื•ื™ื™ึทืœ ืขืก ื–ืขื ืขืŸ ื’ืขื•ื•ืขืŸ ืคื™ืœืข ืžืขื ื˜ืฉืŸ ืื•ืŸ ื™ื ื•ื•ืขื ื˜ืึธืจืก ื•ื•ืึธืก ืงืึทื ื˜ืจื™ื‘ื™ื•ื˜ื™ื“ ืฆื• ื“ืขืจ ืึทื ื˜ื•ื•ื™ืงืœื•ื ื’ ืื•ืŸ ื ื•ืฆืŸ ืคื•ืŸ ืงืึทืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ื™ื ื’.

ืฆื•ื•ื™ืฉืŸ ื“ื™ ื‘ืึทื•ื•ื•ืกื˜ ืคื™ื’ื™ืขืจื– ื•ื•ืึธืก ืงืึทื ื˜ืจื™ื‘ื™ื•ื˜ื™ื“ ืฆื• ื“ืขืจ ืึทื ื˜ื•ื•ื™ืงืœื•ื ื’ ืคื•ืŸ ื“ื™ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ, ืžื™ืจ ืงืขื ืขืŸ ื“ืขืจืžืึธื ืขืŸ ื˜ืฉืึทืจืœืขืก ื‘ืึทื‘ื‘ืึทื’ืข ืื•ืŸ ืึทืœืึทืŸ ื˜ื•ืจื™ื ื’, ื•ื•ืึธืก ื’ืขืืจื‘ืขื˜ ืื™ืŸ ื“ื™ ืื•ื ื™ื•ื•ืขืจืกื™ื˜ืขื˜ ืคื•ืŸ ืžืึทื ื˜ืฉืขืกื˜ืขืจ ืื™ืŸ ื“ื™ ืคึฟืึทืจืื™ื™ื ื™ืงื˜ืข ืžืœื›ื•ืช.
ื˜ืฉืึทืจืœืขืก ื‘ืึทื‘ื‘ืึทื’ืข ืื•ืŸ ืึทืœืึทืŸ ื˜ื•ืจื™ื ื’ ื”ืึธื‘ืŸ ื’ืขืจืึธื˜ืŸ ื“ื™ื–ื™ื™ื ื™ื ื’ ืื•ืŸ ื‘ื•ื™ืขืŸ ื“ื™ ื•ื•ืขืœื˜ 'ืก ืขืจืฉื˜ืขืจ ืคึผืจืึธื•ื’ืจืึทืžืึทื‘ืึทืœ ืขืœืขืงื˜ืจืึธื ื™ืฉ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ, ื‘ืืงืื ื˜ ื•ื•ื™ ื“ื™ "ืžืึทื ื˜ืฉืขืกื˜ืขืจ ืžืืฉื™ืŸ" ืึธื“ืขืจ "ืžืึทื ื˜ืฉืขืกื˜ืขืจ ืžืืจืง 1" ืื™ืŸ 1948. ื“ืขืจ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ื”ืึธื˜ ื–ื™ืš ืคึฟืึทืจืœืึธื–ื˜ ืื•ื™ืฃ ืคึผืึธืคึผื™ื ื’ ื•ื•ืึทืœื•ื•ื– ืฆื• ื“ื•ืจื›ืคื™ืจืŸ ืžืึทื˜ืึทืžืึทื˜ื™ืงืึทืœ ืึทืคึผืขืจื™ื™ืฉืึทื ื–.

ืึธื‘ืขืจ, ื“ืขืจ ื‘ืึทื’ืจื™ืฃ ืคื•ืŸ ืึธื˜ืึทืžืึทื˜ื™ืง ื›ืขื–ืฉื‘ืŸ ื’ื™ื™ื˜ ืฆื•ืจื™ืง ื ื™ื˜ ื‘ืœื•ื™ื– ืฆื• Charles Babbage ืื•ืŸ Alan Turing, ืึธื‘ืขืจ ืื•ื™ืš ืฆื• ืึท ื’ืจื•ื™ืก ื ื•ืžืขืจ ืคื•ืŸ ืกื™ื™ืึทื ื˜ื™ืก ืื•ืŸ ื™ื ื•ื•ืขื ื˜ืึธืจืก ื•ื•ืึธืก ื”ืึธื‘ืŸ ืงืึทื ื˜ืจื™ื‘ื™ื•ื˜ื™ื“ ืฆื• ื˜ืขืงื ืึทืœืึทื“ื–ืฉื™ืงืึทืœ ืคึผืจืึธื’ืจืขืก ืื™ื‘ืขืจ ื“ื™ ืฆื™ื™ื˜ืŸ.
ืขื˜ืœืขื›ืข ืื ื“ืขืจืข ื‘ื™ื™ืฉืคื™ืœืŸ ื–ืขื ืขืŸ John Atanasoff ืื•ืŸ Clarence Isinoff, ื•ื•ืึธืก ื”ืึธื‘ืŸ ื’ืขืคื™ืจื˜ ืึท ืงืึธืœืขืงื˜ื™ื•ื• ื•ื•ืึธืก ื”ืึธื˜ ื’ืขื‘ื•ื™ื˜ ื“ืขืจ ืขืจืฉื˜ืขืจ ื“ื™ื’ื™ื˜ืึทืœ ืขืœืขืงื˜ืจืึธื ื™ืฉ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื™ืŸ ื“ืขื ืื•ื ื™ื•ื•ืขืจืกื™ื˜ืขื˜ ืคื•ืŸ Iowa ืื™ืŸ 1937.

  • ื“ืขืจืคืืจ, ืขืก ืงืขื ืขืŸ ื–ื™ื™ืŸ ื’ืขื–ืึธื’ื˜ ืึทื– ืงืึทืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ื™ื ื’ ืื•ืŸ ื“ืขืจ ื“ืขืจืคื™ื ื“ื•ื ื’ ืคื•ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ื–ืขื ืขืŸ ื“ื™ ืคึผืจืึธื“ื•ืงื˜ ืคื•ืŸ ืžื™ื˜ืึทืจื‘ืขื˜ ืื•ืŸ ืฉืœืึธืก ื”ืฉืชื“ืœื•ืช ืฆื•ื•ื™ืฉืŸ ืคื™ืœืข ืžืขื ื˜ืฉืŸ ืึทืจื•ื ื“ื™ ื•ื•ืขืœื˜ ื“ื•ืจืš ื“ืขืงืึทื“ืขืก ืคื•ืŸ ื˜ืขืงื ืึทืœืึทื“ื–ืฉื™ืงืึทืœ ืึทื ื˜ื•ื•ื™ืงืœื•ื ื’ ืื•ืŸ ื™ืžืคึผืจื•ื•ื•ืžืึทื ืฅ.
  • ื“ื™ ื”ื™ืกื˜ืืจื™ืข ืคื•ื ืขื ืงืืžืคื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื™ื– ื ื”ื™ืกื˜ืืจื™ืข ืคื•ืŸ โ€‹โ€‹ืงืืžืคืœื™ืฆื™ืจื˜ืข ืื•ืŸ ืงืืžืคืœื™ืฆื™ืจื˜ืข ืื ื˜ื•ื•ื™ืงืœื•ื ื’, ืื•ืŸ ื“ืืก ืื™ื™ื ื–ืขื”ืŸ ืคืืจืฉืคืจื™ื™ื˜ ื“ืขื ืจืขืกืคึผืขืงื˜ ืฆื•ืœื™ื‘ ื“ื™ ืคื™ืื ืขืจืŸ ืื•ืŸ ื•ื•ื™ืกื ืฉืืคื˜ืœืขืจ ื•ื•ืขืœื›ืข ื”ืื‘ืŸ ื‘ื™ื™ื’ืขืฉื˜ื™ื™ืขืจื˜ ืฆื• ื“ืขืจื’ืจื™ื™ื›ืŸ ื“ืขื ื•ื•ืืก ืžื™ืจ ื”ืื‘ืŸ ื”ื™ื™ื ื˜ ื“ืขืจื’ืจื™ื™ื›ื˜ ืื•ื™ืคืŸ ื’ืขื‘ื™ื˜ ืคื•ืŸ ืื™ื ืคืืจืžืืฆื™ืข ื˜ืขื›ื ืืœืื’ื™ืข.Ezoic

ื•ื•ืึธืก ืื™ื– ืžืขื ื˜ ื“ื•ืจืš ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื•ืŸ ืื™ื ืคึฟืึธืจืžืึทืฆื™ืข ื–ื™ื›ืขืจื”ื™ื™ื˜?

ืขืก ืื™ื– ื‘ืึทื•ื•ื•ืกื˜ ืึทื– ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื•ืŸ ืื™ื ืคึฟืึธืจืžืึทืฆื™ืข ื–ื™ื›ืขืจื”ื™ื™ื˜ ืจืขืคืขืจืก ืฆื• ื“ื™ ื”ืฉืชื“ืœื•ืช ื’ืขืžืื›ื˜ ืฆื• ืขื ืฉื•ืจ ื“ื™ ืึธืจื ื˜ืœืขื›ืงื™ื™ึทื˜ ืื•ืŸ ืงืึทื ืคืึทื“ืขื ืฉื™ืึทืœืึทื˜ื™ ืคื•ืŸ ื“ืึทื˜ืŸ ืื•ืŸ ืื™ื ืคึฟืึธืจืžืึทืฆื™ืข ืกื˜ืึธืจื“ ืื•ืŸ ื˜ืจืึทื ืกืžื™ื˜ื˜ืขื“ ื“ื•ืจืš ืขืœืขืงื˜ืจืึธื ื™ืฉ ื“ืขื•ื•ื™ืกืขืก.
ื“ืขืจ ื”ื•ื™ืคึผื˜ ืฆื™ืœ ืคื•ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื•ืŸ ืื™ื ืคึฟืึธืจืžืึทืฆื™ืข ื–ื™ื›ืขืจื”ื™ื™ื˜ ืื™ื– ืฆื• ื‘ืึทืฉื™ืฆืŸ ื“ื™ ื“ืึทื˜ืŸ ืคื•ืŸ ื“ื•ืจื›ื“ืจื•ื ื’, ืžืึทื ื™ืคึผื™ืึทืœื™ื™ืฉืึทืŸ ืื•ืŸ ื’ื ื™ื™ื•ื•ืข ื“ื•ืจืš ืกื™ื™ื‘ืขืจ ืงืจื™ืžืึทื ืึทืœื– ืื•ืŸ ื›ืึทืงืขืจื–.

ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื•ืŸ ืื™ื ืคึฟืึธืจืžืึทืฆื™ืข ื–ื™ื›ืขืจื”ื™ื™ื˜ ืื™ื– ืคื•ืŸ ื”ืขื›ืกื˜ ื•ื•ื™ื›ื˜ื™ืงื™ื™ื˜ ืื™ืŸ ื“ืขื ื˜ืขืงื ืึทืœืึทื“ื–ืฉื™ืงืึทืœ ืชืงื•ืคื” ื•ื•ื• ืกื™ื™ื‘ืขืจ ืึทื˜ืึทืงืก ืื•ืŸ ืกืึทืคื™ืกื˜ืึทืงื™ื™ื˜ื™ื“ ืกื™ื™ื‘ืขืจ ื˜ืจืขืฅ ื–ืขื ืขืŸ ืงืขืกื™ื™ื“ืขืจ ื™ื ืงืจื™ืกื™ื ื’.
ื“ืขืจื™ื‘ืขืจ, ืžืขื ื˜ืฉืŸ, ืงืึธืžืคึผืึทื ื™ืขืก ืื•ืŸ ื’ืึทื•ื•ืขืจืžืึทื ืฅ ืคืึทืจืœืึธื–ื  ืื•ื™ืฃ ื™ืžืคึผืœืึทืžืขื ื™ื ื’ ืฉื˜ืึทืจืง ื–ื™ื›ืขืจื”ื™ื™ื˜ ืžื™ื˜ืœืขืŸ ืฆื• ื•ืคื”ื™ื˜ืŸ ื–ื™ื™ืขืจ ืฉืคึผื™ืจืขื•ื•ื“ื™ืง ื“ืึทื˜ืŸ ืื•ืŸ ืื™ื ืคึฟืึธืจืžืึทืฆื™ืข.

  • ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื•ืŸ ืื™ื ืคึฟืึธืจืžืึทืฆื™ืข ื–ื™ื›ืขืจื”ื™ื™ื˜ ืคึผืจืึธื•ืกื™ื“ื–ืฉืขืจื– ืึทืจื™ื™ึทื ื ืขืžืขืŸ ืคื™ืœืข ืึทืกืคึผืขืงืฅ ืฉื™ื™ึทื›ื•ืช ืฆื• ื˜ืขื›ื ืึธืœืึธื’ื™ืข, ื–ื™ื›ืขืจืงื™ื™ึทื˜ ืื•ืŸ ืคึผืึทืœืึทืกื™ื–.Ezoic

ื“ื™ ื˜ืฉืึทืœืึทื ื“ื–ืฉื™ื– ืคื™ื™ืกื™ื ื’ ื“ื™ ืคืขืœื“ ืคื•ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื•ืŸ ืื™ื ืคึฟืึธืจืžืึทืฆื™ืข ื–ื™ื›ืขืจื”ื™ื™ื˜ ื“ืึทืจืคืŸ ืึท ื”ื•ื™ืš ืžื“ืจื’ื” ืคื•ืŸ ืกืคึผืขืฉืึทืœืึทื–ื™ื™ืฉืึทืŸ ืื•ืŸ ื˜ืขื›ื ืึธืœืึธื’ื™ืข.
ื˜ืจืึธืฅ ื“ืขืจ ืึทื ื˜ื•ื•ื™ืงืœื•ื ื’ ืคื•ืŸ ืึทื•ื•ืึทื ืกื™ืจื˜ืข ื–ื™ื›ืขืจื”ื™ื™ื˜ ื˜ืขืงื ืึทืœืึทื“ื–ืฉื™ื–, ื›ืึทืงืขืจื– ื–ืขื ืขืŸ ืฉื˜ืขื ื“ื™ืง ืงื•ืงืŸ ืคึฟืึทืจ ื ื™ื™ึทืข ื•ื•ืึทืœื ืขืจืึทื‘ื™ืœื™ื˜ื™ื– ืื™ืŸ ืคึผืจืึธื˜ืขืงื˜ืขื“ ืกื™ืกื˜ืขืžืขืŸ.

ืื™ืŸ ื“ืขื ืึทื›ื˜ื•ื ื’, ื™ื ื•ื•ืขืกื˜ื™ื ื’ ืื™ืŸ ื˜ืจื™ื™ื ื™ื ื’ ืื•ืŸ ื•ื•ื™ืกื™ืงื™ื™ึทื˜ ืคื•ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื•ืŸ ืื™ื ืคึฟืึธืจืžืึทืฆื™ืข ื–ื™ื›ืขืจื”ื™ื™ื˜ ืื™ื– ืึท ืงืจื™ื˜ื™ืฉ ืจืึธืœืข ืื™ืŸ ืคึผืจืึทื˜ืขืงื˜ื™ื ื’ ื“ืึทื˜ืŸ ืื•ืŸ ื•ื™ืกืžื™ื™ื“ืŸ ืคึผืึธื˜ืขื ืฆื™ืขืœ ืœืึธืกืกืขืก.
ืžืขื ื˜ืฉืŸ, ืงืึธืžืคึผืึทื ื™ืขืก ืื•ืŸ ื’ืึทื•ื•ืขืจืžืึทื ืฅ ืžื•ื–ืŸ ืคึฟืึทืจืฉื˜ื™ื™ืŸ ื“ื™ ืกื™ืจื™ืึทืกื ืึทืก ืคื•ืŸ ืกื™ื™ื‘ืขืจ ืึทื˜ืึทืงืก ืื•ืŸ ืึทื“ืึทืคึผื˜ ืฉื˜ืึทืจืง ืกื˜ืจืึทื˜ืขื’ื™ืขืก ืฆื• ืงืึทื ืคืจืึทื ื˜ ื–ื™ื™.

ื•ื•ืึธืก ืื™ื– ืžืขื ื˜ ื“ื•ืจืš ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ืื•ืŸ ืื™ื ืคึฟืึธืจืžืึทืฆื™ืข ื–ื™ื›ืขืจื”ื™ื™ื˜?ื•ื•ืขืŸ ืื™ื– ื’ืขื•ื•ืขืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ื•ื•ื™ืกื ืฉืึทืคึฟื˜?

  • ื•ื•ืขืŸ ืžื™ืจ ืจืขื“ืŸ ื•ื•ืขื’ืŸ ื“ืขืจ ื’ืขืฉื™ื›ื˜ืข ืคื•ืŸ โ€‹โ€‹ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ื•ื•ื™ืกื ืฉืึทืคึฟื˜ ืื•ืŸ ื–ื™ื™ึทืŸ ื™ืžืขืจื“ื–ืฉืึทื ืก, ืžื™ืจ ื’ื™ื™ืŸ ืฆื•ืจื™ืง ืื™ืŸ ื“ื™ ืฆื™ื™ื˜ ืฆื• ื“ื™ ืฆื•ื•ืขืœืฃ ื™ืึธืจื”ื•ื ื“ืขืจื˜ ืึทื“.

ืื™ืŸ 1202 ื”ืึธื˜ ื“ืขืจ ื‘ืึทืจื™ืžื˜ืขืจ ืื™ื˜ืึทืœื™ืขื ื™ืฉืขืจ ืžืึทื˜ืขืžืึทื˜ื™ืงืขืจ ืœื•ืกื™ืึธ ื‘ืึทื˜ืึธืœื™ื ืึธ ื“ืขืจืœืื ื’ื˜ ืึท ื‘ื•ืš ืžื™ื˜ืŸ ื ืึธืžืขืŸ "ืœื™ื‘ืขืจ ืึทื‘ืึทืกื™", ื•ื•ืึธืก ื•ื•ืขืจื˜ ื’ืขืจืขื›ื ื˜ ื•ื•ื™ ืื™ื™ื ืข ืคึฟื•ืŸ ื“ื™ ื•ื•ื™ื›ื˜ื™ืงืกื˜ืข ื‘ื™ื›ืขืจ ืื™ืŸ ื“ืขืจ ื’ืขืฉื™ื›ื˜ืข ืคึฟื•ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก.
ืื™ืŸ ื“ืขื ื‘ื•ืš, ืขืจ ื“ืขืจืœืื ื’ื˜ ื“ื™ ืขืจืฉื˜ืขืจ ืคึผื™ื ื˜ืœืขืš ื™ื ื˜ืขืจืคึผืจื™ื˜ื™ื™ืฉืึทืŸ ืคื•ืŸ ื“ื™ ื™ื ื“ื™ืึทืŸ ื ื•ืžืขืจ ืกื™ืกื˜ืขื ื‘ืืงืื ื˜ ื•ื•ื™ "ืึทืจืึทื‘ื™ืฉ ื ื•ืžืขืจืึทืœืก," ืื•ืŸ ืขืจ ืฆื•ื’ืขืฉื˜ืขืœื˜ ืคื™ืœืข ืึทืคึผืคึผืœื™ืขื“ ื‘ื™ื™ืฉืคื™ืœืŸ ืคื•ืŸ ื•ื•ื™ ืฆื• ื ื•ืฆืŸ ื“ื™ ื ื•ืžืขืจืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื—ืฉื‘ื•ื ื•ืช.

ืื™ื ืขื XNUMXื˜ืŸ ื™ืืจื”ื•ื ื“ืขืจื˜ ื”ืื˜ ื“ื™ ืงืืžืคื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ-ื•ื•ืขืœื˜ ื’ืขื–ืขืŸ ื ื’ืจื•ื™ืกืขืจ ืื ื˜ื•ื•ื™ืงืœื•ื ื’ ื ื“ืื ืง ืืกืืš ื•ื•ื™ืกื ืฉืืคื˜ืœืขืจ ืื•ืŸ ืื™ื ื–ืฉืขื ื™ืจื™ืŸ ื•ื•ืขืœื›ืข ื”ืื‘ืŸ ื’ืขืืจื‘ืขื˜ ืื•ื™ืคืŸ ืื ื˜ื•ื•ื™ืงืœื•ื ื’ ืคื•ืŸ ืจืขื›ืขื ืขืŸ ืžืืฉื™ื ืขืŸ.
ืื™ืŸ 1837, ื“ืขืจ ื‘ืจื™ื˜ื™ืฉ ื’ืขืœืขืจื ื˜ืขืจ ื˜ืฉืึทืจืœืขืก ื‘ืึทื‘ื‘ืึทื’ืข ื‘ืึทืงืขื ืขื  ื“ื™ ื‘ืึทืจื™ืžื˜ ืึทื ืึทืœื™ื˜ื™ืงืึทืœ ืžืึทืฉื™ืŸ, ื•ื•ืึธืก ืื™ื– ื’ืขื”ืืœื˜ืŸ ืื™ื™ื ืขืจ ืคื•ืŸ ื“ื™ ืขืจืฉื˜ืขืจ ืคึผืจืึธื•ื’ืจืึทืžืึทื‘ืึทืœ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก.

ืžื™ื˜ ื“ื™ ื”ืขื›ืขืจื•ื ื’ ืคื•ืŸ ื•ื•ื™ืกื ืฉืึทืคึฟื˜ ืื•ืŸ ื˜ืขื›ื ืึธืœืึธื’ื™ืข, ืงืึทืœืงื™ืึทืœื™ื™ื˜ื™ื ื’ ืžืืฉื™ื ืขืŸ ื“ืขื•ื•ืขืœืึธืคึผืขื“ ืื•ืŸ ื“ื™ ืžืึทื›ื˜ ืคื•ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ื’ืขื•ื•ืืงืกืŸ.
ืื™ืŸ 1941, ื“ืขืจ ื“ื™ื™ึทื˜ืฉ ื’ืขืœืขืจื ื˜ืขืจ Konrad Zuse ื“ืขืจืœืื ื’ื˜ ื“ืขืจ ืขืจืฉื˜ืขืจ ื•ื•ื™ื™ื›ื•ื•ืืจื’ ืœืึธื•ื“ื™ื ื’ ืึทืœื’ืขืจื™ื“ืึทื.
ืื™ื ืขื ื–ืขืœื‘ืŸ ื™ืึธืจ ื”ืึธื˜ ื“ืขืจ ื“ืฒึทื˜ืฉื™ืฉืขืจ ื’ืขืœืขืจื ื˜ืขืจ ืงืึธื ืจืึทื“ ื–ื•ืกืข ืื•ื™ืš ื‘ืึทืงืขื ืขื  ื“ืขื ืขืจืฉื˜ืŸ ืขืœืขืงื˜ืจืึธื ื™ืฉืŸ ื“ื™ื’ื™ื˜ืึทืœื™ืฉืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ.

ื–ื™ื ื˜ ื“ืขืžืืœื˜ ื”ืื‘ืŸ ื–ื™ืš ื“ื™ ืื ื˜ื•ื•ื™ืงืœื•ื ื’ ืคื•ืŸ ืงืืžืคื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ื•ื•ื™ืกื ืฉืืคื˜ ื ื™ืฉื˜ ืื•ื™ืคื’ืขื”ืขืจื˜ ืื•ืŸ ืื™ืจ ื‘ืื ื•ืฅ ืื™ื– ืคืืจืžืขืจื˜ ื’ืขื•ื•ืืจืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืืœืข ืคืขืœื“ืขืจ.
ื‘ื™ื™ื“ืข ืงืึธืžืคึผืึทื ื™ืขืก ืื•ืŸ ืžืขื ื˜ืฉืŸ ืคืึทืจืžืึธื’ืŸ ืงืึธืžืคึผื™ื•ื˜ืขืจืก ืื•ืŸ ืจื™ืจืขื•ื•ื“ื™ืง ื“ืขื•ื•ื™ืกืขืก ื•ื•ืึธืก ื‘ื™ื™ืฉื˜ื™ื™ืขืจืŸ ืฆื• ืคืึทืกื™ืœืึทื˜ื™ื™ื˜ื™ื ื’ ื˜ืขื’ืœืขืš ืœืขื‘ืŸ, ื’ืขืฉืขืคื˜ืŸ ืื•ืŸ ืคืึทืจืฉื™ื“ืŸ ื™ื ื“ืึทืกื˜ืจื™ ืกืขืงื˜ืึธืจืก.

  • ื“ื™ ืื•ื™ืคืงื•ื ืคื•ืŸ ืงืืžืคื™ื•ื˜ืขืจ ื•ื•ื™ืกื ืฉืืคื˜ ืื•ืŸ ืื™ืจ ืื ื˜ื•ื•ื™ืงืœื•ื ื’ ืžื™ื˜ ื“ืขืจ ืฆื™ื™ื˜ ื•ื•ืขืจื˜ ื‘ืื˜ืจืื›ื˜ ื•ื•ื™ ื ื’ืขื•ื•ืืœื“ื™ื’ืข ื•ื•ื™ืกื ืฉืืคื˜ืœืขื›ืข ื“ืขืจื’ืจื™ื™ื›ื•ื ื’, ื•ื•ืืก ื‘ืืฉื˜ื™ื™ื˜ ื ื’ืจื•ื ื˜ืœื™ื›ืข ื‘ืื–ืข ืคืืจ ื“ืขืจ ื“ื™ื’ื™ื˜ืึทืœื™ืฉืขืจ ืจืขื•ื•ืืœื•ืฆื™ืข ืื™ืŸ ื•ื•ืขืœื›ืขืจ ืžื™ืจ ืœืขื‘ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื“ืขืจ ื™ืขืฆื˜ื™ื’ืขืจ ืชืงื•ืคื”.
ืงืœื•ื–

ืœืึธื–ืŸ ืึท ื‘ืึทืžืขืจืงื•ื ื’

ื“ื™ื™ืŸ E- ื‘ืจื™ื•ื• ืึทื“ืจืขืก ื•ื•ืขื˜ ื ื™ืฉื˜ ื–ื™ื™ืŸ ืืจื•ื™ืก.ืžืึทื ื“ืึทื˜ืึธืจื™ ืคืขืœื“ืขืจ ื–ืขื ืขืŸ ืื ื’ืขื•ื•ื™ื–ืŸ ื“ื•ืจืš *